What is Profitability Index How to Calculate it definition, formula, excel formula

This is how, if examined in isolation, PI ignores the size and added shareholder value of a given project. For example, project A made $200,000 in net profits and has $20,000 invested in the original investment. To find the profitability index, divide 200,000 by 20,000 to determine the profitability. In other cases, profitability index calculations are used after the production stage. In this case, they can determine how much money should be spent on advertising. It takes into consideration all expenses and will provide a figure for how much it’s worth.

  • If the profitability index is greater than or equal to 1, it is termed a good and acceptable investment.
  • In other words, there may be a positive IRR and a payback period, while still having a PI less than 1, and a NPV less than $0.
  • The main usage of this tool is to rank down the investment projects as well as to show the value which is formed for each unit of the investment.

It may not always indicate the correct decision when ranking projects but would certainly provide an insight into the cost-benefit efficiency of one monetary unit invested. Despite its relevance, this index uses just an estimate of the cost of capital in its calculation, so it should not be reviewed on a stand-alone basis. Combined with the Payback Period, Discounted Payback Period, and the Accounting Rate of Return, this ratio provides meaningful data to work with.

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In all, there are many factors to consider when calculating a profitability index. For example, taxes must be considered when determining a profitability index. This is the tax charged by the government on both individuals and corporations. Let’s take an example to understand the calculation of the Profitability Index formula in a better manner. Furthermore, you learned that there are 2 ways to calculate the PI, including one where we take the ratio of NPV to I, and another, where we take it as the ratio of PV to I.

Therefore, using the payback period in combination with other capital budgeting methods is far more reliable. A profitability index is a useful tool for companies to help make the best investment decisions. This Profitability Index (PI) template will help visualize the present value of future cash flows, which will then be used to calculate the PI of the project. The PI measures the ratio between the present value of future cash flows to the initial investment.

  • A negative NPV will correspond with a profitability index that is below one.
  • It basically converted the negative value of cell B3 into a positive value.
  • The profitability index can also get referred to as the benefit-cost ratio.
  • Before investing in any new project, it’s crucial to analyse its chances of profitability.
  • A PI greater than 1.0 is considered to be a good investment, with higher values corresponding to more attractive projects.

Simply enter your initial investment and discount rate, then use the profitability index formula to fill in the rest of the template. In contrast, the IRR rule states that if the internal rate of return on a project is greater than the minimum required rate of return or the cost of capital, then the project or investment should proceed. If the IRR is lower than the cost of capital, the project should be killed. The IRR is sometimes used as a shortcut for calculating the profitability index. Because IRR can be used as the discount rate in the NPV formula to directly calculate the profitability index.

Example of the Profitability Index Formula

It is used to evaluate the potential of a company to generate profit from an investment. A profitability index calculation can be helpful after an investment has been made. If a company doesn’t have good credit ratings or assets that could be sold, it might consider investing in other assets. These assets can then be sold for a profit if a company is in need of quick cash inflows. They will be able to quickly turn around and sell their investment when they need the extra capital. As mentioned above, having a profitability index higher than 1 is ideal.

Let’s assume I get an offer for a new project named Project A where I want to invest my fund. The proposed initial investment is $1,000,000 at an 8% discount rate. Now, I’m going to determine from the profitability index whether Project A will be profitable for me or not. Calculating the profitability index is important before making any investment decisions.

Generally the PI ratio of 1 is least acceptable as it represents the break even point of a project, which defines the point where total sales (revenue) equal to the total cost. A PI ratio of less than 1 is completely undesirable as it represents that a project will cost more than it is expected to earn. Norwich University’s online Master of Business Administration program helps create strong leaders well-versed in business management practices. Students can customize their MBA by choosing a concentration in construction management, finance, organizational leadership, project management, supply chain management & logistics, or energy management. It doesn’t matter the type of business that you operate or the industry that you are in.

Profitability Index Advantages and Disadvantages

Profitability index and net present value both metrics are both used to assess the potential profitability of an investment project. Here are some key differences between the profitability index and net present value. Profitability is the ratio between a business’s income and its expenses. A business determines its income by calculating the money the business generates through its operations and activities. Should these be mutually exclusive investments, the second project will be preferable, even though it has a lower PI.

Advantages of the Profitability Index

Calculations that equal 1.0 bring about situations of indifference where any gains or losses from a project are minimal. When using the profitability index to compare the desirability of projects, it’s essential to consider how the technique disregards project size. Therefore, projects with larger cash inflows may result in lower profitability index calculations because their profit margins are not as high.

The result will then show how profitable the company has been over time. In other words, there may be a positive IRR and a payback period, while still having a PI less than 1, and a NPV less than $0. The discount rate is an important part of the profitability index calculation. A profitability index of 1 indicates breaking even, which is an indifferent result for potential investors. If the result is less than 1.0, logic suggests that the investment should be avoided, as the project’s costs outweigh the potential profits. If the result is greater than 1.0, investors will likely go on to consider the other merits of the project.

Core Benefit of the Profitability Index

There are two different calculations that you can use to determine the profitability index. CFI is the global institution behind the financial modeling and valuation analyst FMVA® Designation. CFI is on a mission to enable anyone to be a great financial analyst and have a great career path.

If the profitability index of a project is 1.2, for example, investors would expect a return of $1.20 for every $1.00 spent on funding the project. The Profitability Index is a measure firms use to determine the relationship between the costs and benefits of doing a proposed project. A profitability index or ratio below 1 indicates that the project should be abandoned. The cost of funding the project is $10 million, and the amount of cash flows generated in Year 1 is $2 million, which will grow by a growth rate of 25% each year.

The projects require investments of $300,000; $200,000; and $600,000 for Archer, Brochure, and Catcher respectively. We’d say that for every £1 pound that you invest in A, you earn £1.50 in cash flow, in present value terms. The NPV method reveals exactly how profitable a project will be in comparison to alternatives. When a project has a positive net present value, it should be accepted.

All other outlays may occur at any point in the project’s life, and these are factored into the calculation through the use of discounting in the numerator. These additional capital outlays may factor in benefits relating to taxation or depreciation. The present value of future cash flows requires the implementation of time value of money calculations. Cash flows are discounted the appropriate number of periods to equate future cash flows to current monetary levels.

In contrast, those with a profitability index of less than one indicate that the project destroys value for the company. Therefore, the formula divides the present value (PV) of the project’s future cash flows by the initial investment. The profitability index is calculated as the ratio between the present value of future expected cash flows and the initial amount invested in the project.

The profitability index is also called the benefit-cost ratio for this reason. A profitability index is a useful tool for evaluating the profitability of investment projects. But apart from having a lot of advantages, it also has some disadvantages. Ad, as the project’s Profitability Index is more than 1, then we can say that it is profitable to invest in the business.